What Exactly Are Our Bodies Made Up Of?

The human body is made of different organs, compounds, and elements. It is an extremely well-organized machine that can reproduce and heal. The organs and chemical compounds work as a team to perform basic yet important functions such as digestion, excretion of waste products, muscle development, and growth. Furthermore, elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, and carbon along with phosphorus reside in the body as well, most commonly found in both cellular and non-cellular components.

Apart from the organs and elements, an adult human body mostly comprises of approximately 60% water. The anatomy of the human body is such that it nearly takes 5 years for medical students to become familiar with each and every nerve, cell, organ, element, and compound found in the body.

Let us take a detailed look into what makes up our bodies and the functions performed.


Circulatory System

The circulatory system consists of artilleries, capillaries, veins, heart, and blood vessels. The heart happens to be the most important organ in the circulatory system. The circulation of blood is initiated by the heart, which is then carried by veins, blood vessels, artilleries, and capillaries around the body. The blood consists of oxygen, nutrients, and fuel, etc. that are transported from one body part to another. Both the heart and circulatory system needs to perform at their optimum for normal operation of the body. If a problem arises in between, a person would need to consult a doctor.

Digestive System

Digestive System

The digestive system consists of liver, kidneys, intestines, mouth, teeth, stomach, esophagus, pancreas, salivary glands, and gallbladder. The function of the digestive system is to break down the food into small nutritious molecules that are absorbed by the body. Furthermore, the digestive system also acts as a protective agent to defend the body against food poisoning and other potential diseases by filtering both food and liquids. The broken-down molecules then take the form of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals, which are then further consumed by the muscles and organs for growth and structural development.

Immune System

The immune system is responsible for protecting your body against harmful cells, which could potentially cause harmful diseases. It consists of white blood cells, lymph nodes, lymph channels, and the thymus. Furthermore, the main responsibility of the immune system is to distinguish its own tissues and cells from the outside cells. If there are excessive free radical cells present in the body, it could mean that a person maybe suffering from cancer. Therefore, the immune system is on the lookout even while you are sleeping to defend your body against harmful substances.

Nervous System

The nervous system is the most complicated system in the human body. It consists of cells, brain, and neurons, etc. The brain is the most important part of the nervous system as it manages and controls thought, emotions, memory, and functions of different body parts. Vision, hearing, smell, and taste are some special senses that are controlled, analyzed, and interpreted by the brain as well. Furthermore, the nervous system is divided into two systems. The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. While the central nervous system is responsible for thought, memory, and performing sensory functions, the peripheral nervous system on the other hand directs body movements.

Elements and their Function


Amongst the elements found in the body, oxygen happens to be the most abundant. As already mentioned, the human body comprises nearly 60% water, therefore, water has a significant role to play in important functions such as metabolic reactions. Furthermore, oxygen is responsible for aerobic cellular respiration as well, that is why it is abundantly found in the bloodstream and lungs. The presence of oxygen is not limited to organs. It is also present in proteins, lipids carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. The intake of oxygen by the human body is strictly monitored. As it is known that excess of everything is bad, the same principle applies to oxygen as well. Too much oxygen can cause oxidative damage to the tissues and cells, therefore, the body only intakes a sufficient amount for it to carry out important functions.


Calcium is an element that is mostly found in bones and teeth. Furthermore, around 99% of the calcium found in the body, helps with structural development and strengthening of the bones and teeth. However, that is not its sole purpose. Calcium helps the muscles contract and regulate proteins. If any organ has an insufficient amount of calcium, the body will extract it from the teeth and bones. As a result, one could suffer from osteoporosis, therefore, it is suggested that a proper nutritious diet is followed.


The second abundant element found in our body is carbon. It is found in every organic molecule and forms the basis of organic chemistry. Carbon is an element that is responsible for bonding to itself to form ring and chain structures, serving as a basis for all metabolic reactions. As you exhale, the carbon present in carbon dioxide is exhaled, which is harmful to the body.


Lipids are basically fats, steroids, and phospholipids. It performs a significant role in the body’s structural development. To put it in simple words, fats provide energy to the body. Furthermore, the fat pads serve as shock absorbers and insulators. As with every important element, the body requires sufficient fat for its normal operation as well. An insufficient amount of fats will make a person look weak and lethargic.


Proteins are required by your skin, nails, and hair for growth and staying healthy. In addition to that, the bones utilize proteins as well for development and strengthening purposes. Athletes and bodybuilders consume protein-based diets to help them recover their strength and energy. Since professional bodybuilding competitions and sports put the body under extreme stress, the body must be strong enough to withstand pressure to prevent injuries. Therefore, individuals involved in such competitions are always seen munching on protein diets.


Hormones are chemical messages that are released by the excretion of different glands. These messages are carried throughout the body and reach organs and tissues. The endocrine glands are responsible for the production of hormones. Furthermore, hormones in men are produced in testicles while in women they are produced in the ovaries.

The production of hormones is important for sexual function, reproduction, metabolism, and growth & development. The production of hormones is also directly related to diseases such as depression and anxiety. When the production of hormones slows down or in worse case scenarios are not produced, a person could fall into a severely depressed state. Therefore, a balance of hormones is always required by the body. A little too much or too little could lead to serious consequences.

Final Word

From the elements to the nervous system, each component of the human body works in collaboration with other body parts to perform basic functions. While the elements help compose the cells, tissues, and organs, the systems and organs on the other hand allow us to make movements, process things, and perform other cognitive functions. Overall, the human body is a work of art from a scientific point of view that carries out necessary functions effortlessly with every organ and body part organized within.